Monday, 10 November 2014

`dpkg' format string vulnerability. CVE-2014-8625

A few days ago, I found a strange/stupid vulnerability in dpkg.

Dpkg is the package manager for Debian-based operation systems, such as Ubuntu.
It handles .deb files.

When creating a dpkg package / .deb a file, a 'control file' must be made. This includes information about the package, such as the package name, description of package, maintainer(s), and version of the package.

That control file is used to display the information before the package is installed.

I found that in the "Architecture" part of the control file, you could put formatting strings, such as %s, %d, etc., and it would output the stack pointer.

For my control file, I have this:

Package: backup
Architecture: %08x.%08x.%08x.%08x.%08x\n
Description: Stuff
maintainer: Joshua Rogers
Version: 1

When building the package, I receive this warning:

dpkg-deb: warning: parsing file 'folder//DEBIAN/control' near line 2 package 'backup:01485120.00415cf8.00000001.00000001.0000001c\n':
Description: Stuff

01485120.00415cf8 is the stack pointers

Tuesday, 5 August 2014

Paypal Complete 2-Factor Authentication(2FA) Bypass Exploit.

Update: It has been patched on the 12th of August. "Surprise?"

[Revision; 6th of August, 2014]
To make it clear: The Paypal account you were 'hacking' did NOT have to be affiliated with the eBay account you were using. In my original tests, I had made a new eBay account using a temporary email, and had gotten into my Paypal through the same method.

It works even without an eBay account, actually.


This blog is an excerpt from my blog entry, "Paypal's 2-FActor Authentication(2FA): The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly", in which I detail the use[fulness] of Paypal's 2Factor system.

On the 5th of June, 2014, I found a complete bypass for Paypal's 2FA service, in which anybody would be able to access a Paypal account that has 2FA setup, by only logging in through a "special" Paypal page.

Friday, 27 June 2014

Paypal's 2-Factor-Authentication(2FA): The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly. (Incl. full 2FA bypass without security questions)


Paypal, like many other services, offer 2-Factor-Authentication in an attempt to strengthen the security of users' accounts. As noted on Paypal's website, "The security key gives you an extra layer of security when you log in to your PayPal account. It creates random security codes to use along with your regular username and password."

Paypal provides two ways of using this service; through a one-time code sent as an SMS to your mobile phone, or through a physical, creditcard sized code generator.(Or optionally, a VeriSign ID Protection key, which you can set-up on your phone for free here.)

An example of Paypal's security-card

Paypal's implementation of 2FA has been heavily scrutinized[1] again[2] and again[3] due to the lack of apparent security surrounding it. They allow security questions to be used to bypass the blockade of not having access to your 2FA device, and sometimes even when you do have access to your device, the code just doesn't work.

In this article, I'll be detailing "The good, the bad, and the ugly" of Paypal's 2FA programme. This includes what works, how it works, how it doesn't work, and security implications(full disclosure: there is/was a complete bypass for the 2FA without security questions.)

Personally, I use the SMS version of Paypal's 2FA, thus I can only directly comment on that. Nonetheless, I'll reference a few articles in regard to their creditcard sized number generator, and the VeriSign key generator.

Monday, 26 May 2014

Facebook "Skype-to-Email" leak [$3,000 Bounty]

Facebook Bug Bounty



 In the middle of January of 2014, I submitted a bug to Facebook through its bug bounty program.

The bug was effectively a Skype account email disclosure. You would find somebodies Skype name, add them on Skype(they didn't have to accept you), and then login to Facebook with your Skype.

Here's a look at how it worked exactly:

In Facebook's "Find Friends" feature, you can login to your Yahoo,Outlook,Skype, and other accounts to add people into your contacts list on facebook(and then in turn add them, I guess).

The feature in question

By logging into your skype account on the feature, and pressing "Find Friends", you were submitted to the next page.

Sunday, 25 May 2014

SQL Injection on subdomain /, subdomains


Whilst looking for some bugs in and, I came across the domain It appears to be a domain for phone users on the old "Three" phone carrier/network, but I'm unsure. Three was bought out by Vodafone awhile ago.

The website is the exact same as,, etc.
The database itself was most likely part of http://, too.

On the third tab of the page, there's a link to the 'Categories' section. -- If anybody has ever used eBay before, they would understand what this is; a list of categories as to where you can view items to buy.(Or in this case, go into a sub-category.)

Instinctively, I saw that there were a few $_GET parameters being used, so I just put a simple apostrophe into the end of the first parameter, "emv_CatParent".
To my amazement, it came back with a half-completed page. -- Pretty much the poster-child of a blind SQL Injection.